Process Synchronization in OS

Process synchronization in operating systems refers to the coordination of multiple processes to ensure orderly and efficient execution, particularly when they share resources or data. It aims to prevent issues like race conditions, where the outcome of operations depends on the order of execution.

  1. Mutual Exclusion: Ensures that only one process can access a shared resource at a time, preventing conflicts. Techniques like locks, semaphores, and mutexes are used to implement mutual exclusion.

  2. Deadlock Prevention: Strategies to avoid situations where processes are indefinitely blocked because each is waiting for a resource held by another.

  3. Semaphore: A synchronization primitive that allows control over access to shared resources by maintaining a counter to indicate availability.

  4. Monitor: A high-level synchronization mechanism that encapsulates shared data and the operations that access it, ensuring mutual exclusion and condition synchronization.

Effective process synchronization enhances system stability, efficiency, and fairness by managing access to shared resources and coordinating process interactions.